.NET 2.0: Addendum to Notes on Foundation Part 1

Addendum to .NET 2.0: Notes on Foundation Part 1

Value Types – Built-in, User-defined, and Enumerations

Built-in value types in .NET are sbyte, byte, short, int, uint, long, float, double, decimal, char, bool, and date.  For performance, use int and double by default.  When using a nullable value type, you can use the HasValue method to determine if the variable has been set or not.  To get the value, use the Value method.

User-defined value types are types declared as struct.

struct MyStruct

They are almost identical to classes except that they are stored on stack and contain their data directly.  Use struct only if it represents a single value, less than 16 bytes, will not be changed after creation, and will not be cast to a reference type.

Enumerations are declared using enum.

enum MyEnum : int { Raw, MediumRare, MediumWell, WellDone };

They are used to assign names to values to improve readability and their names are displayed by default unless you type cast them.



Operator is new in .NET 2.0.  It allows a user-defined type to overload most of the operators provided by the language.  The example below overloads the + binary operator.

public static MyStruct operator +(MyStruct arg1, int arg2)
  arg1.Value += arg2;
  return arg1;


Reference Types

Reference types store the address of their data on the stack.  They are like pointers, if you’re coming from a C or C++ background.  The actual data is stored in the heap.  Since the heap is managed by the garbage collector, which recovers memory periodically, there is no need to dispose of the memory.  To trigger a garbage collection, you can call GC.Collect().

The following are the most common reference types:

  • System.Object – from which all types are derived; where ToString(), GetType(), and Equals() come from
  • System.String – behaves like a value type because it overrides the +, ==, !=, and = operators
  • System.Text.StringBuilder
  • System.Array – base class for all arrays
  • System.IO.Stream – abstract base class for buffering file, device, and network I/O
  • System.Exception


A class can inherit from one base class and can implement any number of interface classes.  In C#, you use the : (colon) symbol to indicate either an inheritance or an interface implementation, which is why it’s good practice to prefix an interface class with I as in IMyInterface.

Commonly used interfaces:

  • IComparable – for sorting
  • IDisposable – for  manually disposing objects that consume/lock resources such as databases
  • IConvertible – for converting to a base type
  • ICloneable – for copying object
  • IEquatable – for comparing instances with == operator
  • IFormattable – for formatting string

Classes can also be declared as partial, allowing a class definition to be split across multiple files.

Generic classes allows one to specify the type for its generic types.  It reduces run-time errors and improves performance.


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